Black holes are exceptional prediction done by Einstein in the general theory of relativity. Since then, scientists have identified many occurrences of black holes and finally able to capture the First ever Image of a Black Hole.
Black holes possess a very strong gravitational field, where not even light can escape. There are many theories and concepts fabricated around the black holes like time traveling or ending up in another universe. Which made them the most fascinating objects in the universe.
But before getting into dynamics of black hole. One must understand the structure of the black hole and how they combine to make a whole.
So let’s get into the structure of black hole:
At the center of the black hole where powerful gravitation pull wraps space and time so dramatically that even Einstein’s mathematics breakdown at the center of the black hole.
At the very center of a black hole, the matter has collapsed into a region of infinite density called a singularity. All the matter and energy the fall into a black hole ends up here. The prediction of infinite density by general relativity is though to indicate the breakdown of the theory where quantum effects become important. It is the point of infinite curvature of space-time.
The event horizon is the threshold around the black hole where the escape velocity surpasses the speed of light. This is the radius around a singularity where matter and energy cannot escape the black hole’s gravity. The point of no return. This is the “black” part of the black hole.
“The event horizon is the ultimate prison wall — one can get in but never get out,” Avi Loeb, chair of astronomy at Harvard University, told Space.com.
Although the black hole itself is dark, photons are emitted nearby hot plasma in jets or an accretion disc. In the absence of gravity, these photons would travel in straight lines, but just outside the event horizon of a black hole. Gravity is strong enough to bend there their paths so that we see a bright ring surrounding a rough circle dark “shadow”.
When a black hole feeds on starts, gas or dust, the meal production jets of particles and radiation blasting out from the black hole’s poles at near light speed. They can extend for thousands of light years into space.
Innermost stable orbit:
The inner edge of the acceleration disc is the last place that material can orbit safely without the risk of falling past the point of no return.
A disc of superheated gas and dust whirls around a black hole at immense speed. Producing electromagnetic radiation (X-rays, infrared and radio) that reveals the black holes location. Some of this material is doomed to cross the event horizon, while other parts may be forced out to create jets.